Hinduism is known as different name, i.e. Vedic, Sanatana, Nigama, Varnashram and Aryan Dharma. This religion is based on 4 different sacred books: Rigveda, Samveda, Yejurvaveda and Adhervaveda. Thus, it is called Vedic Dharma. Because of its existence since long time before Jesus Christ, we call it Sanantana Dharma. This Dharma shows a path to liberation for that reason it is called Nigama. This Dharma explains four Varna (the system of castes): Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya, Sudra and four ashrama (stages of life): Brahmacharya (student), Grihastha (householder), Vanaprastha (retired), Sannyasi (renunciate). These are two different facets of Dharma concept in Hinduism. Therefore, it is also known as Varnashram Dharma. This Dharma is also named Aryan Dharma because this religion belongs to Aryan people.
Hinduism is developed in different phrases. In the first phrase, 4 Vedas were introduced. Then to fulfill the vacuum of philosophy in this faith, a sacred book named Upanishad was created. After that, Puranas was composed. With the creation of these books, different deities appeared in this belief. By the appearance of these deities, different offshoots observed. Shiva is shown as more powerful in Shiva Purana and Vishnu is presented as a hero in Vishnu Purana. In Shaivism, Shiva is a prominent god and the followers of this offshoot venerate different manifestations of Shiva. Similarly, the devotees of Vaishnavism worship different avatars of Vishnu. Shakta is another branch of Hinduism in which enthusiasts adore different manifestations of the goddess Durga.
The goal of Hindu followers is to acquire Moksha (the perfect liberation). There are four ways mentioned in this belief to realize this goal. The first one is Gyan Marg which means self-realization. By understanding the true nature of all elements that exist in this world and universe, we can understand the self. Understanding self is reaching the level of Moksha. The second is Bhakti Marg, the path of devotion. In this path, devotees surrender their whole life to one of the gods and chant and worship daily. Their whole mind is concentrated in god and reaching Moksha. The third one is Yoga which denotes addition between individual soul and universal soul. This is also one of the paths to obtain Moksha. Eight different stages are followed in yoga to arrive in their goal. The last path is Tantric, the way of esoterism. By practicing Tantrism, we conduct the energy generated in our inner part to connect with a universal soul in order to acquire the perfect liberation.
Hindu people believe in polytheism. So, it is believed that 330 million deities exist in Hinduism. But the prominent deities are Shiva, Vishnu and Durga. They have their different manifestations and avatars that help to increase the number of gods and goddesses. They are also included in the mentioned number. God and Goddesses related to nature, creation, human natures, obstacle also exist in this faith. It talks about sages who are composers of different epics in different time periods to give moral as well as social and political knowledge in relation to the religion.
Nowadays people attract in different sects like ISKON, Brahma Kumari, Radhe Radhe, Sai etc. whose philosophy and dogma were also influenced by Hinduism and they venerate same divinities (differentiate according to their sects) of Hinduism.
Hinduism is the largest religion in India with 966 million Indians identifying as Hindu which represents 80% of total population of India. In Nepal, according to the census report of 2011, 81.3% of the total population of the country are Hindu. That makes Hinduism the largest religion in the Republic. In Bhutan, almost 23% of the total population are Nepalese ethnicities following Hinduism which is the second largest religion of the kingdom. Most of the Hindu pilgrimage sites are situated in India except Pashupatinath, Muktinath and Janaki temple are in the Nepal and Mount Kailash and Manasarovara in Tibet.